Frequently Asked Questions
Q. What is human trafficking?
A. Human trafficking, also known as trafficking in persons (TIP), is a modern-day form of slavery. It is a crime under federal and international law. It is also a crime in the majority of U.S. states. Human Trafficking is defined in the Trafficking Protocol as "the recruitment, transport, transfer, harboring or receipt of a person by such means as threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud or deception for the purpose of exploitation."
The definition on trafficking consists of three core elements:
The action of trafficking which means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons
The means of trafficking which includes threat of or use of force, deception, coercion, abuse of power or position of vulnerability
The purpose of trafficking which is always exploitation. In the words of the Trafficking Protocol, article 3 "exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs
Q. Who are the victims?
A. Trafficked persons in the United States can be men or women, adults or children, foreign nationals or US citizens. Some are well-educated, while others have no formal education.
While anyone can become a victim of trafficking, certain populations are especially vulnerable. These may include: undocumented migrants; runaway and homeless youth; and oppressed, marginalized, and/or impoverished groups and individuals.
Q. Who is at risk of becoming a victim of human trafficking?
A. Human traffickers typically prey on individuals who are vulnerable in some way. Some examples of high risk populations include undocumented migrants, runaways and at-risk youth, and oppressed or marginalized groups.
Q. Do victims of human trafficking self-identify as a victim of a crime and ask for help immediately?
A. Often no. Victims of human trafficking often do not seek help immediately, due to lack of trust, self-blame, or being directly trained by traffickers to distrust authorities.
Q. What types of human trafficking can be found in the United States?
A. Forced Labor, Bonded Labor, Debt Bondage Among Migrant Laborers, Involuntary Domestic Servitude, Forced Child Labor, Sex Trafficking, and Child Commercial Sex Trade.
Q. Does physical violence have to be involved in human trafficking cases?
A. No. Under federal law, an individual who uses physical or psychological violence to force someone into labor or services or into commercial sex acts is considered a human trafficker. Therefore, while some victims experience beatings, rape, and other forms of physical violence, many victims are controlled by traffickers through psychological means, such as threats of violence, manipulation, and lies. In many cases, traffickers use a combination of direct violence and mental abuse. The federal definition of the crime, as defined in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, was created to address the wider spectrum of methods of control used by traffickers beyond "bodily harm."
Q. Do victims always come from a low-income or poor background?
A. No. Human trafficking victims can come from a range of backgrounds and some may come from middle and upper class families. Poverty is one of many factors that make individuals vulnerable to exploitation and trafficking.
Q. How is pimping a form of sex trafficking?
A. In the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, a severe form of sex trafficking is a crime in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age. Pimps, who are motivated by the opportunity to make money, sell women and girls in the commercial sex industry by using numerous methods to gain control over their bodies and minds. Many of these behaviors directly meet the definitions of force, fraud, or coercion that are the central elements of the crime of human trafficking. It is often difficult to identify a pimp who is not using some form of deceit, lies, manipulation, threats, or violence towards the women or girls they are attempting to control. An elaborated list of these controlling behaviors of pimps is provided below:
Beating and slapping
Beating with objects (bat, tools, chains, belts, hangers, canes, cords)
Rape and gang rape
Confinement and physical restraint
Deceitful enticing and affectionate behavior
Lying about working conditions
Lying about the promise of a better life, "selling a dream"
Threats of serious harm or restraint
Intimidation and humiliation
Creating a climate of fear
Enforcement of trivial demands
Creating dependency and fear of independence
Q. How widespread is human trafficking?
A. a conservative estimate of the crime puts the number of victims at any one time at 2.5 million. We also know that it affects every region of the world and generates tens of billions of dollars in profits for criminals each year.
Q. Which countries are affected by human trafficking?
A. Human trafficking affects every country of the world, as countries of origin, transit or destination - or even a combination of all.
diana.teixeira. (2013). FAQs. Unodc.org. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/faqs.html